Management is a craft and a profession. Its theoretical foundation is based in systems science and complexity science, which deals with the behavior of social systems. – This is the approach of system-oriented management.
It has to be distinguished from approaches based on business administration.
System-oriented management deals with the design, development and steering of social systems, which are all forms of organizations where human beings collaborate (Companies are one special case). Thereby, coping with complexity is a central question. While business-administration-based appoaches usually put the optimization of entrepreneurial processes and financial numbers in its focus.
In the 1960s Hans Ulrich was first to distinguish between management and business administration. He is seen as the founder of the Management Modell of St. Gallen, which is based on systems science and cybernetics and today is available in different versions.
The furthest developed version are the holistic Malik Management Systems®.